# Arduino – Operators ( Learn Everything)

Are you interested in getting more familiar with Arduino and its operations? Then it’s essential to understand the various operators that are used while programming. Without a grasp of these operators, you won’t be able to take full advantage of all the functions available in Arduino.

In this blog post, we will explain some of the most important operators for putting together your first Arduino project. From arithmetic to comparison and logic, we make sure to cover everything so you can get up-and-running quickly!

## Introduction to Arduino Operators

In Arduino programming, Arduino Operators are essential to perform calculations and comparisons needed to make decisions within the Arduino sketch and control your circuit. Understanding how Arduino Operators work is an important part of Arduino programming and helps you write more efficient code.

Arduino Operators are symbols used to execute various operations on Arduino. Arduino Operators include the basic arithmetic operators such as addition (+), subtraction (-) and multiplication (*), logical operators such as AND (&&), OR (||), NOT (!) and comparison operators such as greater than (>), less than (<).

All Arduino Operators have an associated precedence which defines the order in which they will be evaluated when multiple Arduino Operators appear in a single expression. It is important to understand Arduino Operator precedence because it can affect the expected value of an expression.

For example, if you write “1 + 2 * 3”, the Arduino Operator that has higher precedence is Multiplication (*) so it will be performed first resulting in 7. Without Arduino Operators, Arduino programming language would not be able to perform various operations on Arduino. Thus, Arduino Operators are an integral part of Arduino Programming Language and it is important to understand them in order to write Arduino program effectively.

Arduino Operators allow Arduino users to control their Arduino boards in a variety of ways, including manipulating data and performing calculations. Furthermore, the types of Operators classified in Arduino are:

• Arithmetic Operators
• Compound Operators
• Boolean Operators
• Comparison Operators
• Bitwise Operators

### Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic Operators are used to perform basic arithmetic operations such as addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/) and modulus (%) on the operands. For example, the statement “x + y” will add two numbers x and y together.

Arduino also supports a shorthand notation for arithmetic operations called compound assignment operators. These simplify common expressions by combining both the operation and the assignment together (e.g., x += 2 is equivalent to x = x + 2). Arduino also provides several other arithmetic operator shortcuts, including incrementing (++) and decrementing (–) operators which increase or decrease the value of the operand by one, respectively.

### Compound Operators

Compound operators use the combination of two Arduino operators and a single operand to update the value of an existing Arduino variable in an expression or statement. Some examples of compound operators are `+=` (adding and assigning), `-=` (subtracting and assigning), `*=` (multiplying and assigning) etc.

All the compound Arduino operators work in the same way by combining two Arduino operators such as arithmetic (+,-,*,/) and assignment (=). These Arduino operators first perform the operation with the existing value of Arduino variable and then assigns it to itself.

For example, if we have a Arduino variable `a = 10` and use the compound Arduino operator `a += 5`, then 10+5 = 15 will be performed first and the result (15) will be assigned back to the Arduino variable ‘a’. After that, `a` would become 15. Compound Arduino operators are used in the Arduino programming for solving complex issues quickly and efficiently.

They enable us to write concise Arduino programs by shortening multiple lines of code into just one line of code. This makes our Arduino program more organized and efficient as well as saves time while writing or debugging Arduino programs.

### Boolean Operators

Boolean Operators are used to performing logical operations on Arduino programs such as AND (&&), OR (||), and NOT (!). These operators allow Arduino users to compare values and check if certain conditions are true or false.

Arduino has five Boolean operators available: AND (&&), OR (||), NOT (!), XOR (^) , and bitwise NOT (~). The AND operator returns true only when both of its operands are true; otherwise, it returns false. The OR operator returns true if either of its operands is true; otherwise, it returns false. The NOT operator inverts a boolean value; that is, it turns a “true” into a “false” or vice versa. The XOR operator returns true if one—but not both—of its operands is true; otherwise, it returns false.

### Comparison Operators

Comparison Operators are used to make comparisons between two expressions, such as “greater than” (>), “less than” (<) and “equal to” (=). For example, the statement x>y will determine whether the value stored in x is greater than the value stored in y.

These are Arduino Operators that are used to compare two values and return the result in Boolean form (true or false). These operators can be used with Arduino variables of type ‘int’ and ‘char’. They allow us to make decisions based on some analog voltage.

Comparison operators include equality comparison operator (==), not equal to (!=) operator, greater than (>) operator, less than (<) operator, greater than or equal to (>=) operator and less than or equal to (<=) operator.

### Bitwise Operators

Bitwise Operators manipulate individual bits in a data type. Examples of these operators include bit-shift left (<>) and bit-shift right (>>). They are used to mask or set specific bits within a register or variable without changing any other bits within it.

For example, the AND operator can be used to find out which bits are common between two numbers by comparing them one bit at a time. The result will be all 1s where the bits in both numbers are matching and 0s elsewhere.

The Arduino OR operator (|) combines two binary numbers by taking their bitwise OR of each corresponding bit within the two numbers, resulting in a third number. This operation can be used to set specific bits within a register or variable without changing any other bits within it.

XOR (^) is another Arduino Bitwise Operator that takes the bitwise exclusive OR of two binary numbers, resulting in a third number. The XOR operator is useful for flipping individual bits from 1 to 0, or vice versa.

Arduino users can use these operators to control how Arduino boards interpret analog voltages, as Arduino boards interpret all analog voltages as binary values consisting of 1s and 0s. Overall, Arduino Operators are essential for Arduino users to control their Arduino boards in an efficient manner.

By becoming familiar with the various Arduino Operators available, you can write sophisticated Arduino sketches that will allow you to create complex circuits and programs. With a good understanding of Arduino Operators, you’ll be able to develop code faster and troubleshoot problems quicker! Arduino – Operators

Mataf Khan

An electronics enthusiasts from childhood became an electrical engineer, I've been playing with Arduino and other electronics gadgets like raspberry pi since when I was 14. and have a passion of troubleshooting Arduino problems.